Wednesday, 9 September 2015


    Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala is considered one of the best manufacturing firms in entire Asia. The 
           technology used here is considered most advanced. R.C.F has been a great 
experience of our life .We are exposed to new  and advanced technology.

Our excursion, learning experience, comprehension of the INDIAN RAILWAYS, friendly nature of every one at the workshops and our incalculable inquiries being addressed and disclosed to, has all been conceivable due to the kind help and consolation of Mr Ashwani Kumar (C.I), Mr jagdish (MCM) Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala.

Much obliged to them, Thank you all that much. 

I am also much appreciative to my friend, Rail enthusiast Satish Maurya
For His extending cooperation and support.
With Regards 

Sandip Besra

Taking into account country’s large population, a proper system of transportation is inevitable. No doubt that as the result of the country’s Railway is taking care of this problem.

The demand of more and more passenger trains is the result of the country’s ever increasing prosperity and population. The decision to set up a Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala, Punjab In August’85 was a timely step towards making good shortfall and complementing the coach manufacturing capacity of Railway’s other manufacturing units.
The foundation stone of this factory was laid by the honorable Prime Minister (Late Shri Rajiv Gandhi) of India on 17th August 19985. It is located 9 kms. From Kapurthala, near the Jalandhar –Ferozepur railway line and state highway, near the Hussainpur village.

Land acquisition proceeding was initiated by Punjab govt. and possession of land was given to railways in March’86. In spite of difficulties this target was achieve and first coach was rolled out well within time on 31/03/88. With the consummate effort of both executive and workers the factory produced 120 coaches during 1988-89 and henceforth the factory became self-reliant to turn out coaches with its own components and subassemblies.

Initially R.C.F was producing the coaches based on design of I.C.F, Madras. In 1991-92 R.C.F started producing the coaches on new design develop indigenously.

During year 2001-02, R.C.F has manufactured, 1250 coaches having 974 non-AC and 276 AC. It also worthwhile to mention here that R.C.F has also manufactured 76 M.G coaches for Vietnam.

During recent development R.C.F is now started manufacturing the new series of L.H.B coaches with the help of agreement of German Technology in design and manufacturing. These are the high speed coaches are cleared to run at 160Kmph bogies of these coaches will also be manufactured here with the help of M/S FIAT bogie. The transfer of technology agreement envisages transfer of technology in design, manufacturing and assistance maintenance engineering of this state of art coaches.


(1)       NON-AC COACHES:- 
General Second Class
Sleeper Class
Sleeper Luggage Rack
Accident Relief Train/Staff Van
Accident Relief Train/Tool Van
Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit/Driving Motor Car
Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit/ Trailer Car
Diesel Multiple Unit
Railway Administration
Parcel Van
Postal Van
Meter Gauge Sleeper Luggage Rack
Meter Gauge General Second Class
Meter Gauge Sleeper Class

 (2)       AC COACHES:- 


AC 3- Tier Self Generation

Ac 2-Tier Self Generation
First Class AC/SG
AC Self Generation
AC 3-Tier End on Generation
AC 2-Tier End on Generation
 First Class EOG
 First Class End on Generation
 AC 3 Tier & chair car


The maximum speed of IRY caches is 160 Km/hr. The design of coaches of class IRZ is under construction, which can run at maximum speed of 180 Km/hr.                                                      


Ø    First AC Sleeper coach.
Ø    Two Tier Ac Sleeper Coach.
Ø    Three Tier AC Sleeper Coach.
Ø    Ac inspection Coach.
Ø    AC Chair car, Executive class and economy   class.
Ø    MG Diesel Electrical Multiple Units.
Ø    Mainline Electrical Multiple Units.
Ø    Non-AC Sleeper Class Coach.
Ø    Non-AC General Coach.
Ø    Refrigerated Parcel Van.
Ø    Accident Relief Train.
Ø    Coach Container Flats.
Ø    Double Decker Coach.
Ø    Ac Buffet Car.


Bogie is the part on which the coach rests and due to which the coach runs on the rail line. That’s why it is manufacture under strict precision so that the dimensions do not vary too much from drawing. In the bogie shop the bogies of different coaches are manufacture in the various stages. The various parts of the bogie are not manufactured in that shop, only bogie frame is manufactured in this shop and the rest of the parts are imported from out side sources. These parts are only assembled here. The bogie shop is concentrated with the production and the testing of bogie. This shop takes almost every precaution, since the bogie has to be made to the precision dimensions as indicated through drawings. The coach consists of eight wheels and these eight wheels are divided into two sets of two wheels with suspension frame, springs and dampers when assembled properly then these two sets are known as BOGIE. This shop has the latest sets of technology machines like CNC Plasma profile cutting machine, submerged arc welding (SAW), MAG/CO2 welding sets, Frame cutting machine, Plasma Air cutting machine, Bogie testing machine (Radiography LAB) After the whole bogie gets assembled, it undergoes the static testing, which is done by static testing machine. In this the bogie is given a very high load as it bears in its service conditions. Then it should undergo the dynamic testing by dynamic testing machine, this test is performed to balance the whole bogie.

Bogie Parts:



     First wheels are pressed on the axles and then on the HSS COLLER – REAR COVER – ROLLER BEARINGS – SEALING RING – LOCKING PLATE – RETAINING CAP – RETAINING BOLT. Induction heating of rolling bearings is done at 120 degrees Celsius.
Retailing bolts are tightened at the torque of 11 to 12 Kg/sq.m.

The main parts of the bogie are: -

1)  FRAME: -

In this part of the bogie, shell is placed. It is made of Leo Fein steel sheet. The thickness for general coaches and high-speed coaches is 8 mm and 12 mm respectively. Its parts are Head stock, transverse, Longitudinal and side frames are machined in this shop and at last are assembled in this shop with the help of jigs.

2) WHEELS: -
 These are the casting of Mild Steel and are flanged from inner side. The diameter of the wheel is 890 mm and its thickness is 120 mm. two wheels are joined with frame by AXLE. Each Bogie contains two wheels. And a coach contains four wheels.

Air Brake system is used for braking action. For high speed coaches such as L.H.B and IRY coaches the disc brakes are used and for other coaches block brake are used. The band blocks are used for breaking. And the braking is system is basically of liver pulley system. The pressure is applied on the pipes from the cylinder to the liver and then the brakes are applied.


     It is a source of electricity when the train is moving. For AC coaches two alternators of 25KW power each are used in a single coach. For general coaches an alternator of 4.5 KW power, per coach is used. V – Belts and Pulleys, connects the shaft of the alternator to axle.


     It is used for absorbing shocks. It consists of springs and shockers. Springs are made of steel. Suspension system has two parts.
a) Primary parts: It takes the load of shell only and restricted its vibrations.

b) Secondary part: It takes the load of shell as well as the thrust from wheels.



STEEL YARD: - on the west side of the Shell assembly shop, is situated the steel yard were all the raw material is transported into the factory and required for the coach manufacturing of components is stacked and stored. This material is either brought from steel authority of India or is imported from Japan.

STEEL MATERIAL: - Commonly used sheet for the part is carbon steel and the SAIL supplies mild steel.
The carbon steel can be divided in to four groups or categories: -

1. LOW CARBON STEEL: - It has the composition of carbon ranging from 0.05to0.25%. These are use only when moderate strength is required together with considerable plasticity. These are generally used for sheets, strips, tubing, wire nails, rivets, screws and parts to be case hardened. Sheets are available in the form of rolls of various sizes. Hot rolling or cold rolling produces sheets. Cold rolled sheets have better finish and improve mechanical properties. And permits the rolling of thinner gauge material than hot rolling.

2. STRUCTURE STEEL: -This type of carbon steel has carbon contents between0.2 to 0.35%. These are available in the form of plates of various section and size and bars in hot rolled condition a uniform strength over a range of carbon manganese and silicon. They have high yield point (3300 kg/ and are best suited for both welding and riveted operation.

3. FORGING STEEL: - These contain carbon between 0.30 to 0.40% and are used for axles, bolts, pins, connecting rods, crank shaft etc. these steels are readily forged and after heat treatment developed considerable higher mechanical properties than low carbon steel.

4. TOOL STEEL: - Steel containing 0.6 to 1.30% carbon is called tool steel and is used for the manufacture of tools due to its property of hardness and roughness. The selection of proper tool depends upon the purpose or operation it is suppose to it is suppose to perform i.e. cutting, shearing, forming, rolling etc. each of this operation require in the tool steel a particular physical property as hardness, resistance to heat softening, before optimum performance can be realized.

LENGTH: - the length of sheet available varies from 2500 to 4000mm depending upon their use.

WIDTH: - The commonly available breadth of sheets is 1250mm. Therefore, the sheets are available in the size of 1.6 X 1250 X 2500 to 4000, 2.0 X 1250 X 2500 TO 4000 and so on.


Under-frame constitutes the chassis of the coach and is assembled in the section. Four jigs are used to make the assembly of under-frame. The assemblies are placed in the jigs and then welded together. After this welding operation is completed, it is lifted with the help of overhead cranes and placed on the tracks for the 2nd stage on the other side of the frame. The components, which are located on this side, are welded and after final welding, the frame is painted in black paint and transferred to the transfer bay for main assembly of the shell. The daily out come of this section is four under frame per day, i.e. four coach materials per day.


In this plant various components used in under frame shop are processed to remove oil, grease, rust etc. the components to be processed are immersed in successive tanks so that proper phosphate can be done. There are 8 tanks filled with chemicals & water in series.


Arranging trough floor side by side by side-by-side & then welding them make floor top. The width of top floor is 2556mm & max. Length is 21mm. The length is diff. for diff. coaches. Then crossbars are welded on it. Welding is done by MIG welding.

It is done on a special jig. Firstly the sole bar is fixed on jig. Then crossbars are welded to it with MAG welding at proper positions. Then two-body bolster is welded on sole bars towards edges along length. Then two headstocks are welded at end edges of sole bars. Then lifting pads are welded on it. Side barriers are attached on body bolster. Then top floor is welded on sole bars. Then after shot blasting, painting is done & after that pipe fitting s done. For air braking pipefitting is done below under frame & for water circulation pipefitting is done on upward side.


Firstly primer is applied on under frame manually using spray m/c. then frame is allowed to dry. After this paint is applied on frame in same manner & it is also allowed for drying for 1 hour in LPG oven.


Length: 21127+ -10mm                 Weight: 4500 Kg
Width: 2785 mm                           Height: 920 mm


In roof shop, the roof of the coach is made. The various components & jigs used for making roof are as under:

1. Cant rail.
2. Ribs.
3. Carlines.
4. L-stiffeners & U-stiffeners.
5. Roof sheet belts.
6. Roof sheet.
7. Ventilators.
8. Cable-pipes.
9. Trough for AC
10. Fan Brackets.
11. Revolving jig.


This jig is used for making roof of coach. It revolves at an angle of 360. This has two full rings & three half rings. The purpose of these rings is to hold the car line & cover sheet of these carlines. They don’t allow the sheets to bend anywhere between the length of roof. These also help in revolution of under frame.


Firstly ribs are welded inside the cant rails for strength purposes. Then two cant rails are fixed in the revolving jig. Afterwards, carlines are fixed. Then carlines are welded o these two at proper places. L-stiffeners are welded to the carlines for proper gapping between carlines after rotating/revolving jig to 180(. Then bended roof sheets are welded to cant rail at edges. Before welded roof sheet to cant rails, they are held tight with roof sheet belts for proper welding. Now, again rotate the jig at 180°. Now U-stiffeners are welded on roof sheet lengthwise


After this the roof is placed on fixture with the help of overhead crane. Here a ventilator, fan brackets, pipes for electric wires & trough (only for AC coaches) are attached to the roof by welding.

     Roof sheet thickness                                              1.6mm.
     Length of cant rail                                                 20827mm.             
     Distance between two cant rails                            3245mm
     Roof length                                                            21337mm.


In the SHELL ASSEMBLY SHOP sidewall, end wall, roof, under-frame is assembled and other necessary operation for making shell is done.

Shell assembly operations are done in five stages:

Stage 1:

In first stage, under-frame is placed on the jig. Then setting of camber is done to avoid bending of under-frame downward. Then sidewalls and end walls are placed on shell jig (Shell jig:  It is used for assembly of shell. The Clamping of various components is done by pneumatic or mechanical means) along with under-frame and are fully welded. After wards roof is placed and full welding is done, the sidewalls and roof are made tight for welding by using tie rods (the rods are welded in between side walls and then tightened up by screws to keep them required distances). After welding all clamps and tie rods are removed and checking for final camber is done. Cables pipes are also attached.

Stage 2:

In this stage End walls and sidewalls are welded to each other. Residual welding for shell integral from first stage is also done. Door corner fitting, Conditioning of under-frame, junction box and cable box are fitted, flooring work is also done in this stage.

Stage 3:

In this stage, vestibule doorsill, alarm tube bends; ceiling support angle and window bar fitting is done. Skin tensioning is also done in this stage. In Skin tensioning heating on spots at some distances is done and then hammering is done to remove any deformations.

Stage 4:

In this stage partition framing of lavatory and seating is done.
Besides this, door fitment operations are also performed.


   The word furnishing means DECORATION. The furnishing shop is working for decoration of coaches. So all the decorative work is done here, in this shop. In this shop seats, birth, electrical applications, portions, flooring, bogie installation and many more other goods are fitted here. Also for different type of coach different type of goods are fitted here.
        So after the painting of shell in the paint shop it is transported to furnishing shop with the help of traverse. Here in this shop fittings can be done in a regular fashion. The shop consists of no. of section, and these sections are: -
1. Flooring Section.

2. Panel Section.

3. Plumbing Section.

4. Seat and Berth Section.

5. Lowering Section







In this section flooring is done on the metal under frame. First of all, the plywood flooring is done on the under frame. The thickness of plywood flooring depends upon the type of coach, for example the thickness of plywood for SLR coach is 12mm. the plywood is screwed to the metal floor of the coach, then after this the water sealing compound ISOPATHIC PUTTY is applied on plywood joints and is rub by emery paper later on for the uniformity of the flooring.


Before the PVC flooring electrical fitting, their respective staff does fitting of water tank as well as laying the FRP module. In electrical fitting, wiring of connections is also done.


      Glass wool is fitted inside of coach due to following reasons:

·         It prevents the fire hazards. 
·         It acts as an insulator.
·         It keeps the coolness of AC coaches.
·         It increases the life of rolling stock.
     So after flooring, glass wool is applied to the coach for the above given reasons. In AC coaches it applied to the roof sidewall as well as to the end wall but in non-AC coaches it is applied only to the end wall and roof.


In this section following work is done:

a.       Window marking and drilling.
b.      Tapping operation for out doors. 
c.       Body side window and lavatory fittings.
d.      Window fixing
e.       Side wall paneling for different compartments.
f.       Fixing of alarm pull handles, holding clips, switch panels and window glasses in windows.

So these are the fittings, which are fitted in this section and after that the coach is shifted to next section that is plumbing section.


In this section the fitting of lavatory is done. Also the fitting of pipes from water tank to lavatory and to wash basins is done in this section.
After this section the coach is then shifted to the seat and birth section.

3.                SEAT AND BIRTH SECTION :

     In this section the following work is done:

  • Fixing of chairs angels and sleeve for single seats.
  • Fitting of luggage racks and back rests arrangements.
  • Fitting of guard compartment.
  • Fitting of designation board.
  • Fitting on no. plates of seats and berths.
  • Stench works indicating type of zones and type of coach

So after these all fittings, the bogies are attached t the coach in lowering section.

4.                BOGIE INSTALLATION  SECTION         

          Fixing of bogies to the coaches is the main function in this shop but apart from this other things is also done here in this section. Two bogies are installed per coach. And the machine jacks lift the coach and then the bogie is placed in their respective positions in between the coach and then the coach is rested on the bogies and then the fixing process of bogie is done.
The procedure followed in this section is given below:

I.                                       Fixing of center pivot pin.
II.                                    Adjustment of buffer height.
III.                                  Fitting of bearing plates in Bogie.
IV.                                 Taking bearing frame to the center.
V.                                    Lowering of coach on bogie.
VI.                                  After lowering, the fitting of cotter and split pin.
VII.                               Buffer point adjustment.

So, after all these fittings in the coach, the coach is transported to next shop i.e. finishing shop for final finishing touches.


In the stage all the electrical wiring is dine for the electrical equipment. In this stage D.C batteries are also loaded on the coach is not running. For A.C, S.G and general coach wires used are 1.5mm, Equipment for which these batteries and invertors are provided is: - Fans, lights, Air Conditioner, etc.


After electrical wiring windows and ceiling covers are mounted on the coach in window and ceiling stage. These windows are not manufactured in this factory. These are manufactured by vendors as the design recommended by R.C.F. These windows consist of a windowpane at the inner side which can slide up and down. Ceiling covers are of thin sheet metal and these have open slots for mounting the different accessories.


After paneling the work of molding is done. In this stage aluminum strips cover all the joints of paneling. The molding is done for better out look of inner walls of coach. Screws fasten these strips.


In this stage all the electrical equipment are mounted on coaches. This electrical equipment is fans, lights, electrical switches and air conditioner units. The wiring is attached to these equipments.



After lowering of coach all the connections of air brake are completed. In early days Vacuum Brakes were used but now-a days air pressure brakes are used. There are two types of pipes Feed pipe and Brake pipe. Feed pipe is of white color and Brake pipe is of green color. Pressure in Feed pipe and Brake pipe is 6Kg/cm and 5Kg/cm. These two pipes are connected to a diaphragm. With the help of this diaphragm air pressure is released to piston cylinder arrangement, with the help of which brake is applied.This diaphragm is operated due to the variation in pressure in Feed pipe and Brake pipe.


In the furnishing shop, the assembly of E.M.U is also done. E.M.U is a small motor unit capable of pulling three coaches. It is fitted with four D.C motors, out of which the pantograph, which gets power from the 25kv cable and supply it to the motor unit. Batteries operate the compressors. There are 10 batteries of 10v each.

Roof equipment's --:

The pantograph is connected to the roof bushing of the 25kv cable via the air-blast circuit-breaker, the line side of which has a surge diverter connected between it. A roof-mounted earthling-switch is provided, having two earthing blades in the closed position. These blades contact both sides of the air-blast circuit breaker isolated arm, thereby earthing both pantograph and priming winding of the transformer.

Transformer --:
The connection of 25kv cable from the roof bushing is made to the primary winding. The transformer's secondary winding consists of two separate windings each of 350v. One half has four taps dividing it into five sections each 70v.

Auxiliary circuits - There are two separate auxiliary circuits nominally 266v ac and 110v dc. These comprise oil pump radiator fans, battery charger, and main compressor.



         As the name suggests finishing operation and in section of coach is the main aim of this shop.
         Following operations can take place in this shop in regular faction are as follows:


Air brake system is installed in the coach and is being tested by passing the compress air in pipelines. Generally two-pipe line exists in which one is white and another is green.


       In this the coach is placed below water shower. And then the shower is started and the inspection is done to check whether ts in which on is white and other isnd is being tested by passing the compress air the leakage is there in roof or not. This testing is mainly done to check the coach in rainy conditions.


     That can be tested with the help of motor and belt. After checking the electricity generation, the performance of the AC unit is also checked by glowing number of high wattage bulbs and with AC unit ON.
            So after all this a final inspection is done and after getting OK signal from inspectors, the coach is sent to Delhi headquarters, from there they will sends to the various railway zones according to their demand.


In the electronic shop, the electronic instruments used in various shops are referred. The various devices checked and referred in this shop are MAG welding sets or the electronic parts of CNC machines used in various shops. The machines having small faults are referred in this shop. The various equipment’s in this shop are:

This electronic supply system. This is placed on working tables. It has two sections. One section provides two voltages 230V and 110V. These voltages are used during checking of devices having faults. The DC section provides voltage from -5V to -30V. This system is provided with various pockets for making circuits.

This tester is used to check the IC's used in the circuit plates of various machines for checking the correctness of ICs. If the IC is not faulty or is correct the tester indicates that IC is correct.

This device is used to check the current, voltage, resistance, impedance, and capacitance of the circuit this gives the reading on LCD provided on the front of it. It can measure the AC as will as DC voltages. It can also be used to check the continuity of the circuit.

This instrument used for soldering or de soldering the capacitor, resistance, IC’s transistors, diodes etc from the circuit plate. For soldering, the soldering rod is heated and soldering wire is allowed to melt by applying it on the place where soldering is to be done by de soldering IC’s capacitors etc. From the circuit plate, the solder on IC etc is heated and melted by sucks the melted solder by the action of vacuum pressure.  



  1. Thanks a lot for sharing the info, wish i can visit the factory once.

  2. It is great to see a rail enthusiast take so much interest in learning about the nuts and bolts of a Railway coach. Keep it up !


  3. I have read your blog its very attractive and impressive. I like it your blog.

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  4. Thank you for sharing excellent information. Your website is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you have on this blog. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject.
    Spring manufacturers in Delhi.

  5. How do I get permission for one day visit to RCF kapurthala to observe automation?
    I am a student of Lovely professional university-Phagwara

    1. प्रत्येक शनिवार को कारखाना देखने की अनुमति है , विज़िटर पास बनवा कर कारखाना का दौरा किया जा सकता है I

    2. Can you please confirm the timing and if the days of the visit being an outsider has not changed

  6. The Major task about the pipe threading machine manufacturers is power source only. What about your product work only the diesel and power. Which only better.

  7. Thank you so much for sharing this post! If you are looking for trip then book this: factory tour

  8. i need operations and equipments involved in Fabrication of Sidewalls , roof etc

  9. This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information..
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  10. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free Helical Rotary Actuator | Rotary Actuators Manufacturers

  11. is there any defference in RCF sleeper class coach lenth becouse I saw in some coaches have 72 birth each side 18 windows and some coaches have extra 19th window, so if we considure the TC seat then the lenth is the coach is sligh longer compair to normal 72 birth coach and 18 windows... please share some info..

  12. I am glad to find amazing information from the blog. Thanks for sharing the information.

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  13. I an glad to find all this Information.
    I myself in field of manufacturing of railway fabrication products.
    Thanks for the lots of information.
    its really helps a lots.

  14. Very nice collection, thanks for sharing…

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  16. Very Interesting Post Sir
    How do i get permission of one day visit to RFC Kapurthala to observe automation. But Sir my Study is completed and I'm a design engineer

    1. Hey.. Can you please tell me if you know the days and timings for outsiders visit

  17. Thanks for the post. To cover the top area of the building Metal Roofing Sheets are preferred. It protects from the heavy temperature. It includes some materials and construction things to support the building walls.


  18. very informative blog..keep update with your blogs..
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  21. Thank you, this article has taught me a lot of knowledge. Are there more cases and videos about weld milling and surface polishing of high-speed rail body-in-white?